Pottery | Artefacts
Pottery | Artefacts
Pottery | Artefacts | Coins
Pottery | Brooches | Buckles | Coins | Fittings | Locks & Keys | Mounts | Pendants | Personal | Statuary | Tools | Various | Weapons & Armour
Coins | Jewellery | Other Artefacts
subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link
subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link

About Roman

Romans in Pannonia

Looking at the history books, the conquest of Pannonia has parallels with the conquest of Britain. Both were invaded at roughly the same time; both had rebellions by the Celt tribes who lived there, who killed the earlier settlers, and were put down with brutal force.
Roman resettlement started about 10 AD and the area became more important as the route to Dacia. The Danube became the frontier of the Roman world for hundreds of years. A fleet was maintained there and many forts and garrison towns were built . Larger roman settlements such as Mursa, Cibalia and Marsonia grew on the flat plain between the rivers Drava and Sava.
One would expect then, a rich deposit of roman coins in the region, and this is so, though coins from 1st century BC - 1st century AD have been very much fewer than expected.
The large amount of soldiery in the mid-3rd century prompted the establishments of two mints in the region; at Siscia (Sisak) and Sirmium (Srijemska Mitrovice). Needless to say, coins from these mints are the most common. In fact, so many so-called rare coins have been rescued by us that the rarity ratings for them have dropped considerably .

Roman Silver & Bronze Coinage

The mainstay of the roman coinage was the silver denarius. By the time of it's demise in 248 AD, it had been around for 460 year. Bronze coins (in order of size and value, Sestertius, Dupondius and As) were introduced and were common in the 1st and 2nd centuries, but fell into disuse gradually and by the mid 3rd century the Antoninianus was practically the only coin being produced.
The denarius had dropped to less than 50% silver by the time of it's demise about 250 AD, and it's succesor, the Antoninianus, introduced by Caracalla as a "double denarius", though starting off with about 50% silver, soon became a worthless bronze coin before 270.
The speed of the collapse of the monetary system can be seen in the short reign of Trajan Decius. Over the two year period of his rule, the Antoninianus fell from 40% silver to 22% silver. Consecutive rulers raised the silver content up at the start of their reign but by the end the value had dropped considerably.
The reign of Gallienus saw the opening of many regional mints but saw the lowest level of quality ever in roman coinage, with the Antoninianus now no more than a crudely stamped mishapen piece of copper alloy.
Reforms were made to the coinage by Aurelian and Diocletian and the Follis became the standard coin, usually silver washed, though this became smaller and more worthless under the reign of Constantine. Silver was reintroduced about 355 with the Siliqua and that lasted until the year 400. Bronze declined gradually in size to about 12 mm or less. it wasn't until the reform of Anastasius I (491-518) that these sad little coins were finally discontinued.

Roman Provincial Coinage

Provincial mints are those not classed as issuing imperial coinage. These abounded earlier in many city states, and later by roman colonies at the fringes of the empire. The most important one regarding finds in this region, is Viminacium in the province of Moesia Superior. This mint produced sestertius sized bronzes between 239 - 295, when elsewhere in the empire the quality of coinage was dropping and getting smaller. These coins are very common finds. In one field, Moesian coins of Philip (244-249) outnumber even the later 4th century common types.
Other provincial coins are mainly from Stobi in Macedonia and Nicaea in Bithynia (northern Turkey).

Roman Brooches

By far the most numerous of Roman personal artefacts. Fibulae come in a myriad of shapes and sizes, and have proved to be very regional in design. The Dolphin brooch, one of the most common designs of fibulae to be found in Britain, isn't even represented here. The same goes for the Trumpet brooch and half a dozen other types commonly found in the west.
The Knee fibulas presented here have been given subclasses according to our own logical arrangement; don't try to find them under that classification in any book on the subject!
Only one silver fibula has been found, along with two in iron, one of which is complete and functional.




About Us | Site Map | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | ©2007 CalverleyInfo